The Nernst equation accurately predicts cell potentials only when the equilibrium quotient term Q is expressed in activities. How does changing pressure and volume affect equilibrium systems? An equilibrium is established for the reaction 2 CO(g) + MoO(s) 2 CO(g) + Mo(s). So, Q = [ P C l 5] [ P C l 3] [ C l 2] these are with respect to partial pressure. The formal definitions of Q and K are quite simple, but they are of limited usefulness unless you are able to relate them to real chemical situations. to increase the concentrations of both SO2 and Cl2 Do My Homework Changes in free energy and the reaction quotient (video) However, it is common practice to omit units for \(K_{eq}\) values computed as described here, since it is the magnitude of an equilibrium constant that relays useful information. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. B) It is a process for the synthesis of elemental chlorine. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. Note that the concentration of \(\ce{H_2O}_{(g)}\) has been included in the last example because water is not the solvent in this gas-phase reaction and its concentration (and activity) changes. In Example \(\PageIndex{2}\), it was mentioned that the common practice is to omit units when evaluating reaction quotients and equilibrium constants. (a) A 1.00-L flask containing 0.0500 mol of NO(g), 0.0155 mol of Cl2(g), and 0.500 mol of NOCl: \[\ce{2NO}(g)+\ce{Cl2}(g)\ce{2NOCl}(g)\hspace{20px}K_{eq}=4.6\times 10^4 \nonumber\]. How do you calculate heat transfer at a constant pressure? Enthalpy (Delta H), on the other hand, is the state of the system, the total heat content. So if the equilibrium constant is larger than 1, there will be "more products" at equilibrium. with \(K_{eq}=0.64 \). \[\ce{CO}(g)+\ce{H2O}(g) \rightleftharpoons \ce{CO2}(g)+\ce{H2}(g) \hspace{20px} K_eq=0.640 \hspace{20px} \mathrm{T=800C} \label{13.3.6}\]. If it is less than 1, there will be more reactants. Q > K Let's think back to our expression for Q Q above. Thank you so so much for the app developer. The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. To figure out a math equation, you need to take the given information and solve for the unknown variable. As described in the previous paragraph, the disturbance causes a change in Q; the reaction will shift to re-establish Q = K. The equilibrium constant, Kc is the ratio of the rate constants, so only variables that affect the rate constants can affect Kc. A homogeneous equilibrium is an equilibrium in which all components are in the same phase. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. at the same moment in time. Kp stands for the equilibrium partial pressure. Are you struggling to understand concepts How to find reaction quotient with partial pressure? The value of the equilibrium quotient Q for the initial conditions is, \[ Q= \dfrac{p_{SO_3}^2}{p_{O_2}p_{SO_2}^2} = \dfrac{(0.10\; atm)^2}{(0.20 \;atm) (0.20 \; atm)^2} = 1.25\; atm^{-1} \nonumber\]. Write the expression to find the reaction quotient, Q. Q > K: When Q > K, there are more products than reactants resulting in the reaction shifting left as more products become reactants. . K is the numerical value of Q at the end of the reaction, when equilibrium is reached. Using the reaction quotient to find equilibrium partial pressures The reaction quotient (Q) is a function of the concentrations or pressures of the chemical compounds present in a chemical reaction at a The expression for the reaction quotient, Q, looks like that used to The line itself is a plot of [NO2] that we obtain by rearranging the equilibrium expression, \[[NO_2] = \sqrt{[N_2O_4]K_c} \nonumber\]. We can solve for Q either by using the partial pressures or the concentrations of the reactants and products because at a fixed temperature, the partial pressures of the reactants / products are proportional to their concentrations. Insert these values into the formula and run through the calculations to find the partial pressures: This is the value for the equilibrium pressures of the products, and for the reactants, all you need to do is subtract this from the initial value Pi to find the result. The volume of the reaction can be changed. G is related to Q by the equation G=RTlnQK. \(Q=\dfrac{[\ce C]^x[\ce D]^y}{[\ce A]^m[\ce B]^n}\hspace{20px}\textrm{where }m\ce A+n\ce Bx\ce C+y\ce D\), \(Q=\dfrac{(P_C)^x(P_D)^y}{(P_A)^m(P_B)^n}\hspace{20px}\textrm{where }m\ce A+n\ce Bx\ce C+y\ce D\). the numbers of each component in the reaction). A) It is a process used for shifting equilibrium positions to the right for more economical chemical synthesis of a variety of substances. To find the reaction quotient Q Q, multiply the activities for the species of the products and divide by the activities of the reagents, raising each one of these values to the power of the corresponding stoichiometric coefficient. Some heterogeneous equilibria involve chemical changes: \[\ce{PbCl2}(s) \rightleftharpoons \ce{Pb^2+}(aq)+\ce{2Cl-}(aq) \label{13.3.30a}\], \[K_{eq}=\ce{[Pb^2+][Cl- ]^2} \label{13.3.30b}\], \[\ce{CaO}(s)+\ce{CO2}(g) \rightleftharpoons \ce{CaCO3}(s) \label{13.3.31a}\], \[K_{eq}=\dfrac{1}{P_{\ce{CO2}}} \label{13.3.31b}\], \[\ce{C}(s)+\ce{2S}(g) \rightleftharpoons \ce{CS2}(g) \label{13.3.32a}\], \[K_{eq}=\dfrac{P_{\ce{CS2}}}{(P_{\ce S})^2} \label{13.3.32b}\]. for Q. This process is described by Le Chateliers principle: When a chemical system at equilibrium is disturbed, it returns to equilibrium by counteracting the disturbance. forward, converting reactants into products. Determine in which direction the reaction proceeds as it goes to equilibrium in each of the three experiments shown. Subsitute values into the Introduction to reaction quotient Qc (video) The reaction quotient Q Q QQ is a measure of the relative amounts of products and reactants present in a reaction at a given time. The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Partial pressure is calculated by setting the total pressure equal to the partial pressures. The concentration of component D is zero, and the partial pressure (or. To find Kp, you Arrow traces the states the system passes through when solid NH4Cl is placed in a closed container. The reaction quotient, Q, is the same as the equilibrium constant expression, but for partial pressures or concentrations of the reactants and products before the system reaches equilibrium. In this chapter, we will concentrate on the two most common types of homogeneous equilibria: those occurring in liquid-phase solutions and those involving exclusively gaseous species. What is the approximate value of the equilibrium constant K P for the change C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 (l) C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 (g) at 25 C. Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site! Similarly, in state , Q < K, indicating that the forward reaction will occur. Use the expression for Kp from part a. To calculate Q: Write the expression for the reaction quotient. As the reaction proceeds, the value of \(Q\) increases as the concentrations of the products increase and the concentrations of the reactants simultaneously decrease (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). The state indicated by has \(Q > K\), so we would expect a net reaction that reduces Q by converting some of the NO2 into N2O4; in other words, the equilibrium "shifts to the left". Since the reactants have two moles of gas, the pressures of the reactants are squared. ln Q is the natural logarithm of the reaction quotient (Q) The reaction quotient (Q) is given by: Q = P A 3 P B P C 2 Where P C, P A, and P B are the partial pressures of C (0.510 atm), A (11.5 atm), and B (8.60 atm), respectively. When evaluated using concentrations, it is called Q c or just Q. There are three possible scenarios to consider: 1.~Q>K 1. The value of Q depends only on partial pressures and concentrations. Therefore, Qp = (PNO2)^2/(PN2O4) = (0.5 atm)^2/(0.5 atm) = 0.5. We can decide whether a reaction is at equilibrium by comparing the reaction quotient with the equilibrium constant for the reaction. Thus, we sometimes have subscripts to denote whether the K or Q was calculated with partial pressures (p) or concentration (c). Buffer capacity calculator is a tool that helps you calculate the resistance of a buffer to pH change. Likewise, if concentrations are used to calculate one parameter, concentrations can be used to calculate the other. We offer quizzes, questions, instructional videos, and articles on a range of academic subjects, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, history, economics, finance, grammar, preschool learning, and more. Concentration has the per mole (and you need to divide by the liters) because concentration by definition is "=n/v" (moles/volume). will shift to reach equilibrium. Make sure you thoroughly understand the following essential ideas: Consider a simple reaction such as the gas-phase synthesis of hydrogen iodide from its elements: \[H_2 + I_2 \rightarrow 2 HI\] Suppose you combine arbitrary quantities of \(H_2\), \(I_2\) and \(HI\). To find the reaction quotient Q, multiply the activities for the species of the products and divide by the activities of the reagents, raising each one of these values to the power of the corresponding stoichiometric coefficient.7 days ago The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary". Now that we have a symbol (\(\rightleftharpoons\)) to designate reversible reactions, we will need a way to express mathematically how the amounts of reactants and products affect the equilibrium of the system. If instead our mixture consists only of the two products C and D, Q will be indeterminately large (10) and the only possible change will be in the reverse direction. 2 Add the number of moles of each gas in the sample to find the total number of moles in the gas mixture. Write the expression to find the reaction quotient, Q. Reactions in which all reactants and products are gases represent a second class of homogeneous equilibria. Substitute the values in to the expression and solve Even explains (with a step by step totorial) how to solve the problem doesn't just simply give you the answer to you love that about it. In such cases, you can calculate the equilibrium constant by using the molar concentration (Kc) of the chemicals, or by using their partial pressure (Kp). A general equation for a reversible reaction may be written as follows: \[m\ce{A}+n\ce{B}+ \rightleftharpoons x\ce{C}+y\ce{D} \label{13.3.1}\], We can write the reaction quotient (\(Q\)) for this equation. Reaction Quotient: Meaning, Equation & Units. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 15 million people around the globe learn on Khan Academy every month. This can only occur if some of the SO3 is converted back into products. The amount of heat gained or lost by a sample (q) can be calculated using the equation q = mcT, where m is the mass of the sample, c is the specific heat, and T is the temperature change. Yes! Q = heat energy (Joules, J) m = mass of a substance (kg) c = specific heat (units J/kgK) is a symbol meaning the change in T = change in temperature (Kelvins, K). and its value is denoted by Q (or Q c or Q p if we wish to emphasize that the terms represent molar concentrations or partial pressures.) In the general case in which the concentrations can have any arbitrary values (including zero), this expression is called the reaction quotient (the term equilibrium quotient is also commonly used.) The reaction quotient Q is a measure of the relative amounts of products and reactants present in a reaction at a given time. System is at equilibrium; no net change will occur. Step 1. Im using this for life, really helps with homework,and I love that it explains the steps to you. For example, the reaction quotient for the reversible reaction, \[\ce{2NO}_{2(g)} \rightleftharpoons \ce{N_2O}_{4(g)} \label{13.3.3}\], \[Q=\ce{\dfrac{[N_2O_4]}{[NO_2]^2}} \label{13.3.4}\], Example \(\PageIndex{1}\): Writing Reaction Quotient Expressions. Substitute the values in to the expression and solve for Q. The concept of the reaction quotient, which is the focus of this short lesson, makes it easy to predict what will happen. The concentration of component D is zero, and the partial pressure (or Solve Now. How to use our reaction quotient calculator? When the reaction reaches equilibrium, the value of the reaction quotient no longer changes because the concentrations no longer change. As will be discussed later in this module, the rigorous approach to computing equilibrium constants uses dimensionless 'activities' instead ofconcentrations, and so \(K_{eq}\) values are truly unitless. Decide mathematic equation. Find the molar concentrations or partial pressures of each species involved. For example, if we combine the two reactants A and B at concentrations of 1 mol L1 each, the value of Q will be 01=0. SO2Cl2(g) SO2(g) + Cl2(g) Arrow represents the addition of ammonia to the equilibrium mixture; the system responds by following the path back to a new equilibrium state which, as the Le Chatelier principle predicts, contains a smaller quantity of ammonia than was added. Thus, our partial pressures equation still looks the same at this point: P total = (0.4 * 0.0821 * 310/2) nitrogen + (0.3 *0.0821 * 310/2) oxygen + (0.2 * 0.0821 * 310/2) carbon dioxide. It is easy to see (by simple application of the Le Chatelier principle) that the ratio of Q/K immediately tells us whether, and in which direction, a net reaction will occur as the system moves toward its equilibrium state. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. The reaction quotient of the reaction can be calculated in terms of the partial pressure (Q p) and the molar concentration (Q c) in the same way as we calculate the equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressure (K p) and the molar concentration (K c) as given below. The equilibrium partial pressure for P 4 and P 2 is 5.11 atm and 1.77 atm respectively.. c. K>Q, the reaction proceeds to the formation of product side in equilibrium.This will result in the net dissociation of P 4. and its value is denoted by \(Q\) (or \(Q_c\) or \(Q_p\) if we wish to emphasize that the terms represent molar concentrations or partial pressures.) The only possible change is the conversion of some of these reactants into products. A schematic view of this relationship is shown below: It is very important that you be able to work out these relations for yourself, not by memorizing them, but from the definitions of \(Q\) and \(K\). The reaction quotient, Q, is the same as the equilibrium constant expression, but for partial pressures or concentrations of the reactants and products. So in this case it would be set up as (0.5)^2/(0.5) which equals 0.5. The first is again fairly obvious. Since H2O(l) is the solvent for these solutions, its concentration does not appear as a term in the \(K_{eq}\) expression, as discussed earlier, even though it may also appear as a reactant or product in the chemical equation. 6 0 0. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". If you increase the pressure of a system at equilibrium (typically by reducing the volume of the container), the stress will best be reduced by reaction that favors the side with the fewest moles of gas, since fewer moles will occupy the smallest volume. After many, many years, you will have some intuition for the physics you studied. Pressure does not have this. When 0.10 mol \(\ce{NO2}\) is added to a 1.0-L flask at 25 C, the concentration changes so that at equilibrium, [NO2] = 0.016 M and [N2O4] = 0.042 M. Note that dimensional analysis would suggest the unit for this \(K_{eq}\) value should be M1. Determining Standard State Cell Potentials Determining Non-Standard State Cell Potentials Determining Standard State Cell Potentials The subscript \(P\) in the symbol \(K_P\) designates an equilibrium constant derived using partial pressures instead of concentrations. Solid ammonium chloride has a substantial vapor pressure even at room temperature: \[NH_4Cl_{(s)} \rightleftharpoons NH_{3(g)} + HCl_{(g)}\]. But, in relatively dilute systems the activity of each reaction species is very similar to its molar concentration or, as we will see below, its partial pressure. For any reaction that is at equilibrium, the reaction quotient Q is equal to the equilibrium constant K for the reaction. Carry the 3, or regroup the 3, depending on how you think about it. the reaction quotient is derived directly from the stoichiometry of the balanced equation as Qc = [C]x[D]y [A]m[B]n where the subscript c denotes the use of molar concentrations in the expression. The concentration of component D is zero, and the partial pressure (or, Work on the task that is interesting to you, Example of quadratic equation by extracting square roots, Finding vertical tangent lines with implicit differentiation, How many math questions do you need to get right for passing mogea math score, Solving compound and absolute value inequalities worksheet answers. Q is the net heat transferred into the systemthat is, Q is the sum of all heat transfer into and out of the system. the concentrations at equilibrium are [SO2] = 0.90 M, [O2] = 0.35 M, and [SO3] = 1.1 M. What is the value of the equilibrium constant, Keq? D) It is an industrial synthesis of sodium chloride that was discovered by Karl Haber. If you're trying to calculate Qp, you would use the same structure as the equilibrium constant, (products)/(reactants), but instead of using their concentrations, you would use their partial pressures. It is important to recognize that an equilibrium can be established starting either from reactants or from products, or from a mixture of both. Find the reaction quotient. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The phases may be any combination of solid, liquid, or gas phases, and solutions. The decomposition of ammonium chloride is a common example of a heterogeneous (two-phase) equilibrium. Write the expression for the reaction quotient. K vs. Q How does pressure affect Le Chateliers principle? It is used to express the relationship between product pressures and reactant pressures. Write the expression of the reaction quotient for the ionization of HOCN in water. , Using Standard Molar Entropies), Gibbs Free Energy Concepts and Calculations, Environment, Fossil Fuels, Alternative Fuels, Biological Examples (*DNA Structural Transitions, etc. In the previous section we defined the equilibrium expression for the reaction. A system that is not at equilibrium will proceed in the direction that establishes equilibrium. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Q can be used to determine which direction a reaction The only possible change is the conversion of some of these reactants into products. Experts will give you an answer in real-time; Explain mathematic tasks; Determine math questions This means that the effect will be larger for the reactants. Partial pressures are: P of N 2 N 2 = 0.903 P of H2 H 2 = 0.888 P of N H3 N H 3 = 0.025 Reaction Quotient: The reaction quotient has the same concept. If a reaction vessel is filled with SO3 at a partial pressure of 0.10 atm and with O2 and SO2 each at a partial pressure of 0.20 atm, what can you conclude about whether, and in which direction, any net change in composition will take place? Thus, under standard conditions, Q = 1 and therefore ln Q = 0. Q is the energy transfer due to thermal reactions such as heating water, cooking, etc. 5 1 0 2 = 1. For example: N 2(g) +3H 2(g) 2N H 3(g) The reaction quotient is: Q = (P N H3)2 P N 2 (P H2)3 We have our product concentrations, or partial pressures, in the numerator and our reactant concentrations, or partial pressures, in the denominator. For relatively dilute solutions, a substance's activity and its molar concentration are roughly equal. One of the simplest equilibria we can write is that between a solid and its vapor. The reaction quotient Q (article) Join our MCAT Study Group: Check out more MCAT lectures and prep materials on our website: Determine math questions. The blue arrows in the above diagram indicate the successive values that Q assumes as the reaction moves closer to equilibrium. View more lessons or practice this subject at https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-chemistry-beta/x2eef969c74e0d802:equilibrium/x2eef969c74e0d802:using-the-reaction-quotient/v/worked-example-using-the-reaction-quotient-to-find-equilibrium-partial-pressuresKhan Academy is a nonprofit organization with the mission of providing a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. The ratio of Q/K (whether it is 1, >1 or <1) thus serves as an index of how far the system is from its equilibrium composition, and its value indicates the direction in which the net reaction must proceed in order to reach its equilibrium state. However, the utility of Q and K is often found in comparing the two to one another in order to examine reaction spontaneity in either direction. Step 2. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Born and raised in the city of London, Alexander Johnson studied biology and chemistry in college and went on to earn a PhD in biochemistry. conditions, not just for equilibrium. 9 8 9 1 0 5 G = G + R . Once a value of \(K_{eq}\) is known for a reaction, it can be used to predict directional shifts when compared to the value of \(Q\). Our goal is to find the equilibrium partial pressures of our two gasses, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. If one species is present in both phases, the equilibrium constant will involve both. will proceed in the reverse direction, converting products into reactants. Calculate the reaction quotient and determine the direction in which each of the following reactions will proceed to reach equilibrium. Find the molar concentrations or partial pressures of each species involved. Calculate Q for a Reaction. The answer to the equation is 4. Find the molar concentrations or partial pressures of each species involved. The numeric value of \(Q\) for a given reaction varies; it depends on the concentrations of products and reactants present at the time when \(Q\) is determined. Instead of solving for Qc which uses the molarity values of the reactants and products of the reaction, you would solve for the quotient product, Qp, which uses partial pressure values. This page titled 2.3: Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Quotients is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax. The reactants have an initial pressure (in atmospheres, atm) of Pi = 0.75 atm. In this case, one mole of reactant yields two moles of products, so the slopes have an absolute value of 2:1. If both the forward and backward reactions occur simultaneously, then it is known as a reversible reaction. 15. The Q value can be compared to the Equilibrium Constant, K, to determine the direction of the reaction that is taking place. Pressure doesnt show in any of these relationships. Water does not participate in a reaction when it's the solvent, and its quantity is so big that its variations are negligible, thus, it is excluded from the calculations. To calculate Q: Write the expression for the reaction quotient. [B]): the ratio of the product of the concentrations of the reaction's products to the product of the concentrations of the reagents, each of them raised to the power of their relative stoichiometric coefficients. The activity of a substance is a measure of its effective concentration under specified conditions. Write the expression for the reaction quotient. Since K >Q, the reaction will proceed in the forward direction in order (b) A 5.0-L flask containing 17 g of NH3, 14 g of N2, and 12 g of H2: \[\ce{N2}(g)+\ce{3H2}(g)\ce{2NH3}(g)\hspace{20px}K_{eq}=0.060 \nonumber\]. Ionic activities depart increasingly from concentrations when the latter exceed 10 -4 to 10 -5 M, depending on the sizes and charges of the ions. Therefore, Q = (0.5)^2/0.5 = 0.5 for this reaction. By clicking Accept, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. You're right! If Q = K then the system is already at equilibrium. \[\begin{align} PV&=nRT \label{13.3.16} \\[4pt] P &=\left(\dfrac{n}{V}\right)RT \label{13.3.17} \\[4pt] &=MRT \label{13.3.18} \end{align}\], Thus, at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its concentration. Similarities with the equilibrium constant equation; Choose your reaction. In this case, the equilibrium constant is just the vapor pressure of the solid. Your approach using molarity would also be correct based on substituting partial pressures in the place of molarity values. Standard pressure is 1 atm. Without app I would have to work 5-6 hours tryna find the answer and show work but when I use this I finish my homework in 30 minutes or so, so far This app has been five stars, 100/5, should download twice. If the system is initially in a non-equilibrium state, its composition will tend to change in a direction that moves it to one that is on the line. The amounts are in moles so a conversion is required. Find the molar concentrations or partial pressures of each species involved. 17. To solve for the partial pressure, you would set up the problem in the same way: The reaction quotient Q is determined the same way as the equilibrium constant, regardless of whether you are given partial pressures or concentration in mol/L. 2) D etermine the pre-equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of the reactants and products that are involved in the equilibrium. Example \(\PageIndex{3}\): Predicting the Direction of Reaction. How do you calculate Q in Gibbs free energy? If the initial partial pressures are 0.80 atmospheres for carbon monoxide and 0.40 atmospheres for carbon dioxide, we can use the reaction quotient Q, to predict which direction that reaction will go to reach equilibrium. So adding various amounts of the solid to an empty closed vessel (states and ) causes a gradual buildup of iodine vapor. Q is a quantity that changes as a reaction system approaches equilibrium. Thus, the reaction quotient of the reaction is 0.800. b. Since Q > K, the reaction is not at equilibrium, so a net change will occur in a direction that decreases Q. The chemical species involved can be molecules, ions, or a mixture of both. Calculating the Reaction Quotient, Q. To find the reaction quotient Q, multiply the activities for the species of the products and divide by the activities of the reagents, raising each one of Skip to content Menu In fact, one technique used to determine whether a reaction is truly at equilibrium is to approach equilibrium starting with reactants in one experiment and starting with products in another. Whenever gases are involved in a reaction, the partial pressure of each gas can be used instead of its concentration in the equation for the reaction quotient because the partial pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its concentration at constant temperature. Their particular values may vary depending on conditions, but the value of the reaction quotient will always equal K (Kc when using concentrations or KP when using partial pressures). Write the mathematical expression for the reaction quotient, Qc, for each of the following reactions: (a) CH4 ()+Cl2 ()CH3Cl ()+HCl () (b) N2 ()+O2 ()2NO () (c) 2SO2 ()+O2 ()2SO3 () a) Q = [CH3Cl] [HCl]/ [CH4] [Cl2] b) Q = [NO]2/ [N2] [O2] c) [SO3]2/ [SO2]2 [O2] 17. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. The cell potential (voltage) for an electrochemical cell can be predicted from half-reactions and its operating conditions ( chemical nature of materials, temperature, gas partial pressures, and concentrations). \[N_2O_{4(g)} \rightleftharpoons 2 NO_{2(g)} \nonumber\], This equilibrium condition is represented by the red curve that passes through all points on the graph that satisfy the requirement that, \[Q = \dfrac{[NO_2]^2}{ [N_2O_4]} = 0.0059 \nonumber\], There are of course an infinite number of possible Q's of this system within the concentration boundaries shown on the plot.

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